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Zero to Kriging - An introductory course for geostatistics


Zero to Kriging

As the name suggests, this course takes interested students from no knowledge of statistics or geostatistics through to the mysteries of ordinary kriging and its variants in 30 hours (or less). This is a classroom course and includes manual exercises to reinforce understanding of the techniques.


This course is aimed at any professionals dealing with the estimation from or interpolation between samples collected on a spatial basis. This is not a course for specialist geostatisticians but intended rather for those who wish to use geostatistics to enhance their practical applications or research.

No prior knowledge of statistics or geostatistics is assumed. A minimum of mathematics is necessary to explain the techniques - mainly simple algebra, up to the concepts of solving simple sets of simultaneous equations and differentiating x.

All lectures will be augmented by desktop exercises covering many different applications and candidates should come equipped with a calculator capable of taking natural logarithms.

Questions and discussions are actively encouraged and, indeed, form the basis of a successful course.


Day 1:

The basic assumptions of spatial estimation methods; Inverse Distance interpolation methods; Classical statistics: the Normal distribution.

Day 2:

Statistical methods: the lognormal distribution; confidence levels; standard errors; grade/tonnage curves.

Day 3:

Geostatistical methods: the experimental semi-variogram; modelling semi-variograms; trends; anisotropy; geological features.

Day 4:

Geostatistical estimation: weighted averages; estimation errors; standard errors; confidence levels; ordinary and simple kriging; cross validation.

Day 5:

Variations on kriging; lognormal methods; indicator methods; non-linear geostatistics; regression problems (conditional bias); simulation.



Dr. Isobel Clark

Isobel Clark has taught, researched and consulted in the field of geostatistics for almost 30 years. Possibly best known as the author of the introductory text "Practical Geostatistics" (1979), she is now co-author of a more complete textbook, Practical Geostatistics 2000 which is available as hypertext on CD and as a hardcopy book. Software and data sets are available to all.

Short courses and seminars are offered on a regular basis and, to date, have been hosted by companies and educational institutions on four continents. Dr. Clark lectured for 11 years at the Royal School of Mines, Imperial College, London, at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg for 9 years and was Visiting Professor at Camborne School of Mines for 2 years.

In between these academic engagements, she acts as Managing Director and senior partner of Geostokos (Ecosse) Limited, an international consultancy company based in Central Scotland.

Her recent consultancy assignments range from the evaluation of tantalite deposits in Mozambique to the study of protected sea-birds in the UK.

Geostatistics is the name given to a particular group of techniques which model spatial processes and allow estimation of values at unsampled locations. Geostatistical estimation is a two stage process:

    i. studying the gathered data to establish the predictability of values from place to place in the study area;

   ii. values at those locations which have not been sampled. This process "is known as 'kriging'.

In mining, geostatistics "is extensively used in the field of reserve valuation - the estimation of grades and other parameters from a relatively small set of borehole or other samples.

Geostatistics is now widely used in many other fields. Obviously there are geological and geographical applications. However, the techniques are also used in such diverse fields as hydrology, ground water and air pollution, soil science and agriculture, forestry, epidemiology, management of wildlife and weather prediction.

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